Social Issues of India

A society is the foundation of a country and it represents the people residing in it, it works to bring together the widely spread population under a one roof. It facilitates patterns, cultures, rules, Regulations, framework and a conduct to the lives of the people. A society is fundamentally a group or groups of many people who are accommodating with each other for some common and different causes or purposes. In a society people share relationships, bonding, associations and collaborations and there is a constant transaction of services taking place among them. In precise a society is basically an internal Infrastructure of the country where the people follow Common cultures, patterns and a code of conduct, they mutually adjust to each Other and engage in the transactions of services. Social Issues of India

Without a society or an infrastructure it is very tough for a country to work systematically hence it is necessary to upgrade That framework and also to keep a check whether the society itself is working properly or not. People are the integral part of a society; it is for the people and by the people. Being the creator of it, people are foremost Responsible for its growth or downfall. As far as the people follow the right Conduct, services are properly availed, people share a mutual understanding, Where every person knows and fulfills his/her responsibilities and realizes the The limits of the infrastructure; it is a civilized society. But when people begin to forget their responsibilities and follow their own self asserted patterns, the society begins to project its drawbacks, loopholes and a downfall.

New issues arise in the society which demands Immediate rectifications because without correcting those issues growth cannot be Visualized. Issues related to the society that has direct or indirect impact on the People and the society are called Social Issues. Those issues are to be treated as problems; some are like stigma and taboos, because they show the weaknesses of our infrastructure and the system. These issues can jinx the whole system slowly and gradually and when the system is corrupted, how will it serve its people!  Today there are many social issues emerging in the Indian society which have a deep impact on people’s lives. There is a rise in fear, insecurities, hatred and conflicts among everyone. Not a single person is unaffected from those social issues.

Following are few major social issues that need to be understood and rectified. These following issues have worsened the condition of the Indian society and its people. Let us consider them with attention to find out the solutions to eradicate them once for all:

  1. CRIME AGAINST WOMEN AND CHILDREN: crime basically denotes the violence may it be in the form of physical or mental. In India women and children have always been subjected to many kinds of violence in open or inside the fences. Life has become truly unsafe for women and children and in fact their survival has become a struggle for them. There are many kinds of crimes against women such as female foeticide, prostitution, rapes, eve-teasing, sexual harassment, dowry death, trafficking, fraudulent marriages, domestic violence and so on. Children are also assaulted and harassed in many ways; there is child labour, child trafficking, sexual abuse, kidnapping, child marriage and minor girls’ prostitution.  Women and children are treated as the weaker personalities in the society and somewhere our male dominant Indian society is responsible for such an attitude towards them. Homes, working place, outings everywhere women have to face a lot of harassment in many forms. Children especially in child labour have to face a lot of exploitation and harassment for the sake of a small amount of money they get. Women and children both are essential parts of the society, they have their specific roles to play for the country therefore they need to be given their due respect and shouldn’t be deprived of their rights.
  2. POPULATION EXPLOSION: population explosion is one of the biggest issues and problems in India at the present time. It is becoming a curse for damaging the present society and also becoming a block in the development of the country. India is a developing country and with this population explosion it is facing a reduction in its resources which is shown in the form of poverty, unemployment and many other social problems. The major causes of population explosion are; increased birth rate, decreased death rate, and migration and immigration. This population explosion is affecting the country many a ways such as it is spoiling the country’s environment by polluting the water and air, there is a rapid scarcity of food resources, increase in unemployment, increase in illiteracy rate, opportunities are becoming less, and poverty is increasing. Housing facilities are becoming short to meet the necessities of people and hence slum areas are simultaneously increasing. Due to environmental pollution and less sanitation facilities many hazardous diseases are spreading in the environment. In precise due to the increase in the number of people/population the Facilities, opportunities and resources are becoming less and hence this is one of the major issues that society needs to correct as soon as possible.
  3. POLLUTION: industrialization, transportation advancement and urbanization have adversely affected the environment; they have literally disturbed the equilibrium of the nature. The most dangerous outcome of this imbalance; is global warming. The present society is facing the problem of pollution; there is air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, land pollution and few other types also. Due to the rapid urbanization, deforestation has also increased. Rarely 10.12% of the total area is covered with trees. All the kinds of pollution are threatening the survival of the mankind. Industrialization and urbanization have encouraged the village population to migrate to cities which are becoming overcrowded as a result. Slums are rapidly increasing, sanitation facilities, diseases and crimes are also increasing in the urban cities and moreover the cleanliness in cities is depleting. Heavy traffic, loudspeakers, mobile phones create so much of noise pollution which can create deafness for a person also. Houses are so congested in cities that there is no proper space and fresh air available. People are just compromising with their health and living standards. Besides, huge industries are also creating so much of waste and garbage which is finally disposed in the rivers and lakes making them horribly dirty and contaminated, and when this water further used by the village people it makes them ill and spread many viruses among them. Industrial waste is so much poisonous and contains hazardous chemicals which pollute air, water and land. People litter garbage on roads; defecate on the roads which help the virus to get spread all around in the atmosphere.
  4. PROSTITUTION: selling of sexual services such as sexual intercourse or oral sex in exchange of money is known as Prostitution. Women are basically the prime provider of such services with a choice or without choice. Prostitution is now prevailing all over the India and almost every state is witnessing numerous cases of prostitution. This trend has actually aroused from the long ancient beliefs and traditions that depicts women as “devdasani”, “jogini”, “sexual servants” who used to be the dancing girls to entertain the lords in the temples, rulers and kings. Prostitution has a long tradition of its existence which is now getting new definitions in the modern era. There are orthodox and customized mentalities and ideologies of the people, according to which women are supposed to serve and entertain the family members, relatives and the society. She is supposed to live inside the house only and due to this minor mentality women have to bear so many tortures, suppression, violence and exploitation. Poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, social customs, lack of recreational activities; some of the major causes that give rise to prostitution. India is a land where the women used to be worshiped as Devi and today she is being used as a physical toy by the men to satisfy their sexual urges. This is indeed a social taboo.
  5. UNTOUCHABILITY: untouchability is basically a narrow ideology that makes a particular group of people being deprived and discriminated from the other groups of the people of the society. Since a long period only Dalits have been the prime subject of this humiliation and discrimination in the society. Untouchability has survived for a long time back and today it has been rooted in many forms in the lives of the people. Untouchability identifies the Dalits as the most inferior group or class of the society hence they have been deprived of many rights and other facilities. In the old Indian society Dalits were restricted from the access of public roads, water tanks, wells, rivers, public toilets and many facilities which only the upper class people could avail. Today, untouchability is still persisting in the modern society but in some new forms. There is casticism, class differentiation, status and prestige discriminations in the modern society. People even though are established and reputed still they believe in the orthodox ideologies that dictate the caste upper than the human beings.
  6. BEGGARY IN INDIA : beggary is basically an outcome of poverty, illiteracy and unemployment and it is one of the biggest social problems in India. Beggars are very commonly found on roadsides, traffic jam, traffic lights, flyovers and especially nowadays temples and some religious places is becoming the hub of beggars. According to a survey the number of beggars in India varies and especially in the metropolitan cities these figures are gradually increasing. Mumbai has the number of 3, 00,000 beggar and more than this, whereas Delhi has a number of 75,000 beggars. These beggars are mostly children and women and according to the survey more than 66% are able-bodied and beggars find it as the best option for earning their livelihood. Beggary has become an addiction or like the easiest way to earn money for beggars, there is a severe laziness prevailing among the beggars. They find it more suitable to degrade themselves and to put the dignity of their life at stake. Indian people show sympathy towards the beggars from a religious point of view. They try to feel good by giving some alms to the beggars but indirectly they are enforcing the trend of beggary into the society.
  7. GENDER DISCRIMINATION & CHILD ABUSE: gender discrimination is so deeply rooted in the Indian society that it is not only limited to any particular class or group but it is now widespread in the country. Every third couple wants a boy and this mentality is not a newly born but it has a long history of Orthodox custom, traditions and ideologies associated with the girl child. A girl is supposed to be a burden on the parents because when she is born she is not alone but she arrives with much other heavy expenditure of her upbringing, education and marriage. And couple do avoid these expenditures at least where they can, and that is why female foeticide and many other crimes are increasing against girls with each day. Girls are discriminated, tortured and abused as if being born as a girl is the biggest sin they have committed. In fact in the rural areas these activities are most prevalent. A study has shown evidence where even the most educated couples also show indifference for girls and prefer to have only sons. Girls have to bear a lot of discrimination at homes, schools and even at their working places. The Society strongly believes that girls are inferior to boys and have least role to play for the same. Hence their absence could be accommodated.
  8. CRIMES AGAINST JUVENILES: young children are becoming the prey for many inhumane activities in the present Indian society. Why there is an increase in crimes against the young children these days? In a study and survey few criminals were interviewed about the features and situations they look for when they are about to commit any crime. Most of them conveyed that they basically look for young children and even the young ones because a child is innocent and rarely have the courage and bravery to oppose and defend. Hence young children can easily be harassed and assaulted for satisfying the delirious tendencies. Young children are easily approachable. In the past two years crimes against juveniles has suddenly caught the pace; kidnapping, rapes, murders, molestation, trafficking, pornography, foeticide, selling and buying of young children are such popular criminal activities. Major cases of rapes, assault and harassment are noted against young girls. Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Haryana, Rajasthan is among the states that have a high number of cases of rapes, kidnapping and abduction, and a procuration of young girls.
  9. KHAP PHANCHAYAT: Khap Panchayat is basically founded and formed by the upper caste Jats to strengthen their power and position in the villages and community. The central idea this Panchayat promotes is that all the girls and boys within the Khap community and village are considered as siblings. Khap strongly believes that love marriage is the biggest sin and the boys and girls belong to the same clan (Gotra) hence they cannot marry the person of same Gotra and even though if someone dares to go beyond this rule they would surely have to bear the loss of his/her life. Honour killing is the heinous proof of this whole scenario. The tradition of this Khap Panchayat is prevalent in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. This Panchayat believes that the girls are wholly responsible for maintaining the dignity of their caste, community, family and the village that is why if any girl is found to be in such affairs she is threatened, beaten and ultimately killed. Khap Panchayat has its own writ which it imposes on the villagers forcibly. The members of this Panchayat find their way of justice to be quicker than the formal courts of justice. There is no place for women’s freedom, rights and choices in Khap Panchayat.
  10. MALNUTRITION DEATHS: malnutrition basically means when the adequate amount of food is not provided and properly fed to the child. In India about 47% of the children under the age of five are severely malnourished. Malnutrition is not only about the unavailability of food but it is rather about the inadequate knowledge of feeding the child in a proper way. Due to lack of education mothers and families do not know the exact and minimum calories that should be given to the child for his growth and to avoid any illness. India is in the second rank in having the highest number of malnourished and underweight children. For a normal growth about 200-300 calories should be given to a child under five. Poverty does play a role in flaring up the problem of malnutrition but even the poorest families can at least afford half a chappati or a half banana, a bowl of pulses or a half boiled potato for a normal growth of a child. Parents are not aware about the right kind of feeding and exact calories to be given to the child; hence the child gets sick faster his immunity gets weaker and ultimately reaches the death. Malnutrition deaths are now so common in India. More than 6,000 children under the age of five die every day due to the malnutrition, they are prone to many diseases like diarrhoea, jaundice, tuberculosis and so on. In fact at the time of pregnancy mothers remain malnourished and hence the infant is born with many deficiencies of prime vitamins and folic acids.
  11. SANITATION:  as soon as industrialization and urbanization is catching the speed, cleanliness, hygiene and sanitation issues are also increasing with that. The environment is spoiled day by day and along with that, people fail to follow the civic sense. With the problem of population explosion many other drawbacks are also flashing out. There are no adequate housing facilities and with which there are also no proper provisions for toilets and for dumping the garbage. Especially the slum people do not have any access to proper toilets and more than sixty percent people of the slum and including the rural people defecate in the open. Poor sanitation spoils the whole atmosphere, water resources and spreads harmful parasitic bacterial infections that can make the people suffered from hazardous diseases. Villages, slums and the nearby areas of these places are found to be very dirty. Their garbage is in the open, there is no proper drainage of dirty water and no proper sewers provided to these people. Due to poor sanitation people are living in awful and unhygienic conditions.
  12. POLIO: polio is basically a virus disease namely poliomyelitis and characterized by the crippling and paralysis of legs among the children under the age of three. Government of India started a campaign Pulse Polio during 1995-96 to eradicate this most dangerous disease from India. In 1995 India launched Pulse polio immunization program with a universal immunization program that aimed at an overall coverage. And in 2012 WHO declared India as free of polio. Now there is a need to maintain the pattern and to sustain the success which has been achieved.
  13. TUBERCLUOSIS: tuberculosis is one of the biggest and widely spread diseases in India. It is caused by the bacterium and specifically called as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This disease basically causes due to a weak immune system. The immune system is the basic system of the human body that determines the strength of the body to fight with all kinds virus, bacteria and helps in avoiding any kind of illness. A strong immune system denotes a healthy human body. But when this immune system gets weak it begins to catch many harmful viruses and bacteria from the outer atmosphere and becomes more prone to illness. TB bacteria can affect any organ part of the body. Tuberculosis gets active in the body when the immune system becomes weak. In the above mentioned issues we have already discussed that there are malnutrition, sanitation problems prevalent in the society which shows that the human beings are internally weak and the outer atmosphere is already unhygienic which surely resonate favourable conditions for the diseases like tuberculosis. India has the highest number of Tuberculosis patients and any having such a huge burden of this disease is surely affecting the country in terms of great loss of manpower. When the people of the country are not well and healthy how can it predict a growth for itself?
  14. HIV/AIDS: HIV basically stands for (Human Immune Deficiency Virus) that causes AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). It is a disease in which the defensive system of the human body breaks down entirely and leads to the complete depletion of the immune system of the body. In such a situation the person is not even able to bear a mild infection and looses all the resistance power. Today, HIV/AIDS has been spread all over the India. It is a non-communicable disease which doesn’t spread through food, air, water and the environment. Rather it is caused by sexual intercourse with an infected person, by the transfusion of HIV infected blood and by using infected syringes, needles and other instruments. It is a myth that HIV/AIDS can be caused by kissing, hugging, sharing food, sitting together, mosquitoes bite or working with an infected person. It can only be caused only when there is a blood transfusion, semen or vaginal secretion. It can also be caused to a newborn infant through his infected mother. Today India has several cases of HIV/AIDS in almost every state. This disease is mostly detected in women because they usually are found in such conditions that favour this disease. Prostitutes are a prime sufferer of this disease. Drug addicts and those who donate blood through unsafe mediums are more prone to HIV/AIDS. It is a serious social problem because its impact is more serious and it does not only affect the person alone, rather it affects each and every person, atmosphere and condition associated with the patient.
  15. DRUG ABUSE: for a long time drugs have been used for medical purposes but today its purpose has been changed.  In India people especially the youth, adults and now even the adolescents are taking disastrous drugs like cocaine, opium, chars and other narcotics. The number of drug abusers is increasing rapidly in India. It doesn’t differentiate between a man and a woman and today women and young girls are also caught in this trap. Drugs mutilate the mental and physical organs of the person and make him/her addictive about it. The addicts start behaving lunatic and even can dare to commit any crime and suicide. The usage of drugs has been mostly found in urban cities where the lifestyle of people is fast and furious. Especially the young generation who has wild and witty mindsets do not get scared of trying out the risks of drugs. About 80% of the youth take drugs and the reason behind this lies in the modern style of living. Youngsters want to become modern in terms of their living standards, they are curious to know about every single activity taking place around them, there is a peer pressure and also a gap between them and their parents which are surely responsible for their drug addictions. It is a matter of concern for the society and the government as well because the young people are the future of the country and the youth who is drug addicted cannot bring any good for the country.
  16. POVERTY: India is suffering from poverty for a long time back. Poverty in very simple terms means that the people are not able to afford the basic facilities and necessities. In India it is a matter of concern because in the last few decades it has created a social disparity among the people. A huge gap is being constructed between the poor and the rich. Whereas a poor is not able to earn the basic livelihood for his family, a rich person is enjoying lavish lifestyles. Dependency on agriculture, lack of education, unemployment and underemployment and caste system give rise to poverty. The social aspect of poverty is very dangerous because it is dividing the society in diverse classes, groups and communities. The fund is getting centralized with the rich and aristocratic people. There are many limitations with the poorer sections of the society in terms of availing the facilities, education, shelter and basic meals. Society needs to lessen this gap between the rich and the poor otherwise the poor section would soon be vanished by the overburden of poverty.

Any issue demands a solution and when it relates to the society it surely needs a kind concern from specific sections. First of all a society is meant for the people and by the people. People choose the government and then the government works for the welfare of the people and the society. Hence society, people and the government are interconnected and any issues raised in any of these three can be sorted out with the help of the rest of the two. When we are talking about the social issues/problems government and the people play a significant role in eradicating and sorting out those problems. Hence in this article we would take up each of them to look into the major role they can play in bringing the change in the society. Initially we would discuss what role the Government can play in solving the social issues:


Fund raising and appropriate allocation of funds for public welfare: here all the authoritative bodies and bureaucrats should be very concerned for the generation and for the right utilization of the funds. All the funds that are delegated to the administrative bodies of public welfare should be properly channelized and utilized. We need loyal and honest bureaucrats who respect the public funds and utilize them for the welfare of the public and not for the welfare of their own peer group. There should not be any biasness while allocating the funds.
Strict Implementation of Law for crime against women and children: rules and regulation are to be followed and not to be ignored. The biggest drawback of the Indian Judiciary system is that it does not impose the law in a strict manner. Today the number of crimes has increased at a quicker pace, if the law had been strict in our country no person would dare to commit a crime. But the picture is entirely different here, criminals are carefree they are not scared of the law and in fact they feel it so easy to get a bail. Crimes against women and children are taken up so casually, criminals are wandering in open and that’s very freely. Moreover in domestic violence, child labour and other harassments and assaults the criminals are not punished properly. Numerous of rape cases, trafficking, child abuse are just lying pending in the courts. The law should give justice to the victims not rather make them curse the judiciary system to increase their suffering.
Free education camps and health facilities for poorer sections: government should organize free education and health camps in the rural and remote areas where poor rural people are not able to afford the facilities. They should be literate and can avail the health facilities properly. Especially the labour class of the society should be given extra attention who tends to see the education as a waste of time and health as unnecessary. There should be an increase in the number of public schools and health facilities. Education should reach to the masses and medical facilities should be easily availed. Public hospitals are meant for the poor people and they should not be delayed in getting the treatment on time.
Need for efficient administrators: there is a need to have efficient and loyal administrators in the authoritative bodies who always keep a watch on the implementation of the activities and who can take enough wise steps for the betterment of work and welfare of the public. Government needs honest officers who can look seriously into the policies and programs because until the people in authority would not be serious and concerned, the public cannot avail the benefits that the government truly wants to provide to them.
Proper allocation of food resources: in many states the food items/resources are not fully allocated. They are not well maintained, stored and organized which results in a huge wastage of the food items (grains, rice, pulses) at the time of the need. Hence the state government should increase the number of storage houses to keep the items safe and maintained so that it can be released at the proper time. Due to the wastage of food items the poor people have to bear the burden of inflation. They have to buy the food items at high prices and ultimately the poor man is unable to avail the basic nutrition for him and his family.

Now we shall move towards the Society. Society itself can amend many issues and can provide a better living to its people. Following are the suggestions that the society needs to concentrate upon:


Revision of social ideologies, beliefs and perceptions : society needs to reformulate and revise its certain beliefs, ideologies and perceptions that it has been applying on almost every aspect of it for a long time back. The picture of women in the society has been demeaned and underestimated in the society for ages. Children and youth have always been deprived and unprivileged because they are treated as immature and inefficient. Likewise education has been taken for granted. There are so many orthodox customs and traditions still prevailing in the society; caste system, dowry, prostitution these are such old and deeply rooted social beliefs and ideologies which have turned into a curse for the Indian society. This is the time to move in a positive and the contemporary path that which leads the mankind towards high moral values. Hence society needs to act flexibly while dealing with the sensitive issues existing in it.
Strengthen the social institutions : family and education system are the basic systems of the society. Both family and education play a vital role in the growth and maintenance of the same. Family takes care of its members and cultivate moral and social values in the members so that they can contribute their best for the welfare of the society.  Each member of the family is giving his each bit for the development of the social atmosphere. It is a chain of contributions therefore families need to be strengthened by providing them every possible opportunity and facilities which directly or indirectly help them to grow. So that families are staying united and may function well for making remarkable contributions to the society. Education is also equally important for the society. It helps a person to build up a new personality who is broadminded, far sighted, mature and wise. Education helps the society to reformulate its rigid beliefs and introduces contemporary ways to live and let live.
Gestures of Empathy, Help and Motivation at the time of need: in the time of any crisis and problem or even while trying to find out the solutions of the social problems, the society needs to bring its people together. It should be able to combine the people at such needy times so that everyone can work together, can help each other and motivate one another. Especially society needs to inject the feeling of empathy in each one of its members so that they can understand that any problem of the society is actually their problem. They have to deal with those problems as they do take care of theirs. When any adverse happening or indecent instance takes place it should not remain a single person’s issue rather it should get the attention of all. And this would only be possible when the society would make certain changes in itself particularly changing its orthodox and customized perceptions.

Ultimately the whole scenario summarizes at the personal level of the individual. The efforts of government and the society would not succeed if the individuals wouldn’t understand their own responsibilities and roles. Therefore following are a few suggestions that an individual can follow to help the society in dealing with the social issues:


Being aware and alert: at the personal level the individual should be aware and alert about the happenings in the society. Awareness helps the person to be active in the practical aspect. Awareness should also be present regarding the rights and the responsibilities. One should be aware and sure for his rights and duties. One should speak up where needs to raise the voice especially against any violence and crime. A special reference is being made for the women that they should be aware of their rights and freedom. They should not bear any violence against them and their children. One should be enough alert to take police help whenever is required.
You ignore others so would you be ignored: when someone is in problem should never be ignored. That person requires help and support at that time and if we simply ignore that situation then this situation might happen to us any day. This is what happening now days. People become the witness of the crime but not ready to help and save the victim from the offender because of the great fear of getting harmed. But somewhere we have to take the initiative to help the needy.
Civic sense: every individual should be attentive towards his civic sense; how does he perceive the society, community and the environment around him. His behaviour should reflect a civilized way of treating the people and dealing with the things around him. One should possess respect for others, feelings of compassion, tolerance, and patience. Seeing the society as his second home is the best way of perceiving it, if one sees the society this way, his each action would always be for the welfare of it and he would oppose that every situation that might harm it.
Projection of contemporary beliefs: one should never be shy in projecting new and contemporary ideas and beliefs in front of others because it might help the society to bring the change at large and with ease. Society needs dynamic personalities for its growth and development and one should never remain behind the scene in expressing one’s self. We may never know single thought of some person might bring wonderful transformations. Hence one should always be concerned with the betterment of the society and keep sharing the enlightened thoughts with like minded people.

Social issues are the problems which the society faces or facing for a long time. Each issue needs to be rectified and eradicated. Problems can never let the society grow and they are like the hurdles in the way of development of the country. They need to be dealt with attention and concern of the government, the society itself and the people.

Society is for us and created by us hence its problems are ours and should be corrected by us.

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