Secularism and Communalism are the two opposite poles of a civil society

The Constitution of India, which is regarded as the highest law of the nation, declares India as a secular state. The word secular was added into the preamble of the Constitution in 1976 by the 42nd amendment. Secular state means a state that professes to be legitimately unbiased in issues of religion. It also declares to treat all its citizens equally in spite of religion, and assert to shun favored dealing for a citizen from a particular religion. Secular politics endeavors to avert religious beliefs or bodies from persuading legislative strategies. The beliefs that the Indian constitution espouses is a sort of secular humanism prepared germane through a chronological progress of the dogma contained by the milieu of religious pluralism in India. Article 15 of the Indian Constitution prohibits against sex, race, caste, religion etc.

Secular State means a State which perceives all individuals as equal citizens of a civilization in which no religious or social stratification are accepted as the foundation for exercising political rights. After inserting the word “secular” in the preamble of the Constitution, it entailed equality of all religions and religious lenience and as result; India does not have an official state religion. Each citizen has the right to sermonize, follow and promulgate any religion they prefer. The government must not errand or differentiates against any religion. All citizens, despite of their different religious beliefs are equal in the eyes of law. No religious philosophy is conveyed in government or government-aided schools. According to Article 25 all those who dwell in India are gratis to acknowledge, follow and promulgate religion of one’s preference. Consequently even adaptation of any religion of ones preference is a fundamental right. It allows following the basic values, social ethics and chiefly followed and festivals of every recognized world religions.

The connotation and insinuation of Secularism in India is poles apart from the Western concept i.e. in the sense of agnosticism or merely this knowing loom, snubbing the ethereal values. India is a country where religion is exceedingly vital to the life of citizens. India’s venerable beliefs as illustrated in Hindu scriptures called Upanishads is sarva dharma samabhava, which means equal revere for all religions. The basis at the rear this loom is the verity that India has on no account been a mono-religious nation. In a leading case, the Supreme Court declared Secularism to be a vital part that forms the fundamental formation of the Indian Constitution.

The veracity is that Communal philosophy is a distraction stabbing to avert far-reaching progressive whereabouts. It lashes in expediently with a post-nationalist period where the middle-class does not desire to witness the amplifying of the societal pedestal endowing with admittance to command and resources. Communal philosophy is adversarial to laissez-faire and far-reaching opinions and events. Where it glimpses disenchanted, it does not vacillate to employ the metropolitan underclass in an effort at criminalizing behavior and in this manner clutching society to liberate.

The history of communalism in India, traits back to the 19th century. The Indian history has been the witness of the Communal riots between the Hindus and the Muslims during the British reign. The predominant cause for Hindu-Muslim dissonance was the penchant of the Muslim crowd to remain standoffish from the preponderance society and segregate from the secular-nationalistic politics of India. Scores of Muslim organizations and individuals advocated that Muslim Community must arrange itself independently to guard its benefit, culture, language and religion. The Jamaat-e- Islam counseled the Muslim not to play a part in in the first General Election under the Constitution of Independent India, on the opinion that election would not institute an Islamic State. The relic of the Muslim League stipulated, separate electorates for the Muslims in 1948.

Correspondingly, Hindu bigotry subsisted in the pre-Independence epoch; which was fueled by the Arya Samaj, Hindu Mahasabha, and the Rastriya Swayam Sewak Sangh. These organizations accentuated Hindu Culture in a “primarily Hindu land,” emphasized on Hindu Rastra, Hindutva, and Hindi Bhasa (Hindi). The culture of both British and Muslims were portrayed as ‘alien’. The actual headship of Hinduism conceded into the hand of the Jan Sangh, political faction of RSS, in 1951.

Communal dogma was mushrooming forward during 1938-1946. However, massive level hostility transpired only in 1946-47. There was no communal hostility in Punjab in 1948-31, although the basis for violence of the years was being paved since 1982.

The fortitude of Gandhism died along with him as it botched to take part in an ingenious character either in the orb of social justice or in the orb of religion after Independence. However, the Constitution of India adopted and included Secularism in part III which contains the fundamental rights. Articles 25-30, which provides for, freedom of religion and protection of cultural and educational rights of minorities, with a few additional Articles guarantee Secularism.

Foremost, it guarantees freedom of religion to individuals as well as to religious groups. Subsequently, it guarantees equality of citizenship that is no discrimination on grounds of religion (Article 15.1), equality of opportunity in public employment (Article 16.1.2), no discrimination in educational institutions (Article 29.2) and no communal elector¬ate (Article 325), even though there is a special provision for reservation of seats for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes (Article 330 (1) and 332). Lastly, it provides for separation of State and religion, that is, no special taxes for promotion of religion (Article 27) and no religious instructions in State educational institution (Article 28). The provisions in these articles expound that the Constitution intend neither to defy religion nor to encourage a explanation of culture, other than purely to uphold the impartiality and fairness of the State in religious issues.

The subsisting legal provisos, both preventive and punitive are sufficient enough to avert and stifle communal insurgences. The Indian Penal Code and the Criminal Procedure Codes have Sections incorporated within which empowers the Police, the magistrates etc. to take adequate actions during such emergencies.


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