National Issues of India

Any issue related to the country that which requires a serious concern, transformation, change and modification should be treated as the National issue. Issues that hinder the nation’s growth and development are basically the hurdles and problems which should be dealt immediately. There are various factors which are responsible to determine the nation’s progress. A nation has diversified spheres and determinants any problem of which may influence the nation in a big way. Whenever any problem arises in those areas it directly affects the growth and development of the nation and becomes a national issue. Hence to avoid and to rectify the national issues, the problems of those spheres should be rectified. Society, government, economy,  culture, security, environment, judiciary, infrastructure, education, politics, governance, health care system, feminine issues, territorial issues, energy issues, is such areas of concern which need to be looked after very carefully, because any problem aroused in these areas would surely affect the nation and its progress. These are the important determinants of the development of any nation and so for the India. Therefore it is deliberately essential for a country to keep a watch over these factors to avoid hurdles and obstructions in its way of growth.

NATIONAL ISSUES OF INDIAWe shall now begin to look into those above mentioned areas to understand and analyze the national issues deeply. Following are the different spheres in the Indian context which act as a hindrance in the way of growth of India:

SOCIAL ISSUES: society is an indispensable part of a country. It is a framework and works as a foundation of the same. It represents the people in the country. A society facilitates code of conduct, rules and regulations, patterns and cultures of the people. It can be understood as an internal infrastructure that helps the people of diverse cultures, behaviors and mentality to accommodate to each other and to share their common interests. Issues or problems that relate to the society and have a direct or indirect impact on the same are called as social issues. Social issues have a deep impact on a nation; there are many social taboos or serious issues still persisting in the Indian society which cease the social progress of India. In this modern era Indian society still reflects a menial picture of its framework and system that directly jinx the country’s pride and prestige.

  1. Drug abuse: drug abuse is one of the current trends that have trapped the Indian youth in such a way that they see no easy escape now. The incidences of drug abuse are mostly detected among the children below 15 years and adolescents. Amphetamine-type Stimulants (ATS) are most commonly used among children and the youth. In India, Opium, Cocaine, Heroin, Alcohol, Tobacco and Proprxyphene are the highly consumed drugs. According to a survey in India, around 63. 6% of young children who are below the age of 15 years become the patients of drug abuse and take treatments. Another survey reveals that around 13.1% of the individuals below the age 20 years are involved in drugs and substance abuse. The survey also detects that highest usage of alcohol, opium and cannabis (21%, 0.1% and 3% respectively) is by the children below 18 years. Drug abusers often make use of used and unsterilized needles and injections that increases the risk of HIV infections. Use of soft drugs, tobacco, alcohol and whitener is very famous among the young street children and trafficked children. Basically India lacks in sensitizing this problem and lagging behind in conducting programs for spreading awareness about drug abuse among the youth.
  2. Gender discrimination: gender discrimination has not been an alien concept and practice for the women of India. There has been a prevalence of discriminatory attitudes towards the Indian women that have turned their lives into a struggle. There is no such area where the women are not discriminated on the basis of their gender. They are supposed to be the weaker gender in comparison to males and hence they have to face various forms of discriminations since their infanthood to adulthood.  Their access from facilities, services, and opportunities to privileges has always been underestimated and troubled. Due to this gender discrimination female foeticide a heinous act is catching the pace, every minute a girl child is aborted that results in the decline of sex ratio. According to the Census 2011, 914 females stand against 1000 males which have surely dropped down from 927 in 2001. Even the literacy rate of females counted as 65.46% in comparison to the 82.14% of the male literacy rate. Females are discriminated at almost every stage and in each field. The patriarchal and male dominated tradition of Indian society is the basic root cause of this gender discrimination. In Indian society females are supposed to be dependent and only suitable for homes.
  3. Crime against children and juvenile: this issue has been viewed as a plague that has spread all over the India now days. Besides women, young children are becoming easy prey of inhumane activities in the Indian society. Every day young children are raped, harassed, assaulted, kidnapped, abducted and trafficked. Especially the young innocent girls are reported to be harassed more. States like Haryana, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Maharashtra reported to have the highest number of rapes, kidnapping and a procuration of young girls. In fact Kerala the highly literate state reported more than 2000 cases of harassments and assaults. The NCRB ‘shame list’ topped with Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra with 9465 and 6868 cases respectively where as Delhi ranked at sixth position with 2909 cases and Kerala at eighth with 2000 cases of harassment and rapes. UP and Andhra Pradesh followed by 5949 and 3977 cases respectively. In comparison to a decade ago the number and cases of assault and harassments of juveniles have been increased from 2113 cases in 2001 to 7112 cases in 2011. There is a severe lack of proper set up of juvenile homes in India where they can avail protect and rehabilitation. Shamelessly if there are limited juvenile homes they are foremost the worst place for younger children In fact named as hell holes. Children are regularly harassed, humiliated and mistreated while living in these homes.
  4. Beggary: beggary has come in front as a worse outcome of poverty, unemployment and illiteracy in India. Beggars are easily and commonly found in India at many places like traffic jams, flyovers, temples and other religious places. The number of beggars is increasing and that is particularly in the metropolitan cities. Cities possess a high number of unemployed people and also slums that give rise to one of the social issues like beggary. Beggary has now become a trend, Mumbai possesses more than 3, 00,000 beggars whereas Delhi is also in the queue with having around 75,000 beggars. According to the survey beggars find it more suitable to beg and earn their livelihood instead of choosing another occupation. Approximate 66% of the people among beggars are able bodied and children and women have the strength in numbers. Beggary is a social taboo since it shows that the people of the country are paralyzed by the false ideologies and laziness.
  5. Untouchability and Casticism: untouchability and Casticism have stratified the Indian society and its people in a very menial manner. There persists a caste system or hierarchy of stratification according to which people are being ranked as higher or lower and being privileged or deprived in the Indian society. The people who belong to the lower castes like Dalits, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and minority groups are usually ill-treated and deprived of their rights. The old Indian society has numerous examples of exploitations and harassments of the lower caste people by the upper caste people. Untouchability is one of the biggest examples of this exploitation of the lower castes. This taboo has survived for a long time back in India. Dalits and minority group people are supposed to be inferior and they are made deprived of many rights and many other facilities which the upper caste people can easily avail. Not only in the old Indian society but also in the present scenario untouchability and casticism are most prevalent. In the field of education, professions and socialization lower caste people have to face many challenges to avail their rights and dignity in the society. India is a country where we can see a wide gap between the upper and lower castes, a lot of exploitation and many cases of assaults where only the lower caste people are the victims.
  6. Khap Panchayat: the upper caste Jats founded and formed the Khap Panchayat with the view of strengthening their power and position in the villages and their community. This Panchayat holds a basic idea that all the girls and boys of Khap community are considered to be the siblings. According to this Panchayat a boy and a girl of the same Gotra (Clan) cannot get married and it is the biggest sin they can ever commit. Love marriages are strictly prohibited into this Panchayat and if a couple dares to do so, losing their lives is the only result they have to bear. Honour killing is the biggest example of the rigid and cruel ideology of this Panchayat. This Khap Panchayat is more prevalent in the states Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. This Panchayat possesses its own writ that is imposed on the people of villages and community coercively. They follow their own rules and regulations and believe that their decision and justice are quicker and fairer than the justice of the Supreme Court. Panchayat holds only women responsible to maintain the dignity and pride of the family, clan and villages. If a girl raises her voice against any of the decisions of the Panchayat or dares to go against it, she has to lose her life. Many young boys and girls have been brutally killed and tortured by the Panchayat for crossing their limits. Rights, freedom and choices of women play no role for the Khap Panchayat.

Political Issues : Since 1947 India has witnessed many political and ethnic upheavals but it is a commendable thing on the Indian Government’s part that it has survived till now. Severe problems like the partition of the subcontinent, religious tensions, refugee problems, wars in Hyderabad and Kashmir, communist insurrections, general dislocation in the transfer of power and the assassination of Gandhi strained all the energies and resources and preoccupied the people for an independent, democratic nation. However the immediate issues were resolved but then there are long term problems as well, the nation and Indian politics have to face. In a broad perspective these problems are fourfold—the problem of national unity, cultural integration, fulfilling the expectations and the problem of political stability. Besides these following are the current political issues India is facing :

  1. Ethnic conflicts : Indian states face many ethnic conflicts among each other and these conflicts arise due to the states having the fear of losing their cultural identities. There is a fear of assimilation, dilution and a fear of unfulfilled aspirations among them. Unequal development, poverty, lack of opportunities and exploitation spark ethnic political conflicts among the states. There are specific political reasons which also encourage the ethnic conflicts such as bad governance, institutional decay and political deception, cultivation of anti-secular forces, corrupt politician and political parties.
  2. Regional assertiveness : such feelings sometimes result in the formation of groups which wanted to create their own independent state. ‘Gorkhaland’ is a good example of this instance. Gorkhaland is a region with Darjeeling in Sikkim. Gorkha leaders had this ideology that if they were a state , they would have a more direct contact with the Indian government and then there need could have been fulfilled and noted. And such instances of the creation of more linguistic states encouraged the people to become more politically active than before. This also led to the creation of militant political groups one prominent example of such a group is Shiv Sena in Maharashtra.
  3. Separatist Movements : such movements are very frequent throughout the India. And this is because of the religious and ethnic diversity. There are many groups who feel alienated from the government and its system and tend to think that their problems are not heard and needs are not met. And in such an irritation they desire to have a statehood for their own region but usually they wish full secession from India. Since independence many violent insurgencies had sprung up in order to attain independent statehood. Regions like Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura are few of those who have demanded their state representation or total secession. India still continues to hold its different states all together yet such movements continue to be the prevailing forces in the social-political landscapes.
  4.  Kashmir Conflict : Kashmir issue has been very old yet many problematic issues in India so far. Since the partition of India and Pakistan after the end of British rule, Kashmir has been in a problematic situation. The Britishers gave the princely states the choice whether they want to remain independent or to join India or Pakistan. It was a complicated situation for both India and Pakistan because they had already fought two wars over the dispute of Kashmir. At the time of Partition the Sikh Kashmiri prince was given the choice to either become a part Of India or Pakistan but he chose to be independent. He had to face immediate peasants revolts and threats from the armed groups. As a result Pakistani forces advanced into the territory of Kashmir and took over a part of it. Despite of the agreement efforts made by United Nations Security Council (UNSC) and United Nations (UN) Pakistan refused to release the captured regions of Kashmir.  During the War of 1971, that was another war over Kashmir, this time India made advances in possessing territory and drew a new ‘Line of Control’ (LOC) that is supposed to be the current border limit between the two nations. This is the region line of control where the Pakistani military cross the order in the Indian controlled Kashmir and cause problems for Kashmiris.

ECONOMIC ISSUES:  Indian economy has lived a long life of growth and achievements so far. What else would be more appreciable for the Indian economy than to be represented as the fourth-largest economies in the world by purchasing power parity (PPP) and the ninth-largest economy in the world by nominal GDP? Economic experts and various studies conducted in economics assumed that India and China would rule the economic world in the 21st century. India has been asserted to become the third largest economy in the world with 14.3% of share of the global economy by 2015 and to become the growth driver and the ‘third pole’ by the year 2035. However Indian economy is all set ready to touch the heights but there are still a few issues which need to be looked after and need certain advancements in order to confirm the further economic growth, more employment opportunities and to make the economy globally competitive. Following are the economic issues which the Indian economy surely needs to be solved out:

  1. Inflation: in the past few year inflation in India has been a great problem for the Indian people. Wages, property prices, food prices and commodity prices have increased drastically making the common man feel helpless and static. The present inflation rate in India is 6-7%. Since 2008 the inflation rate has remained high. GDP growth has been slowed to an annual rate of 5.3%, investment by firms has also been slowed down. With the economic growth rate of 9.2% per annum the pressure of inflation has also been increased.
  2. Weak Infrastructure: Indian economy suffers from many inefficiencies and constraints due to which a huge amount of food items goes waste and unutilized. About 40% of the Indian fruits rot before they reach the market. Farmers and producers lack basic amenities and better provisions of storage. Poor facilities of transportation and marketing are the examples of inefficient bureaucracy and administration.
  3. Widened disparity between the poor and rich: the Indian economic growth has so far supported the rich and wealthy classes while neglecting the necessities of the poor classes. The economic growth of India has hardly been beneficial for the rural poor people. The rural poor have been facing so many basic problems of housing, electricity and other amenities. The producers and industrialist are becoming rich whereas the poor population is living on less than a dollar per day.
  4. Illiteracy: illiteracy does have an impact on economic growth of the country. Our economy doesn’t demand for the high percentage of English speakers that is eventually has a good range in India but it surely needs literate people who can come up with their broad and sophisticated ideas and can contribute to the efficient implementation of economic activities. Indian economy requires enthusiastic researchers and academicians and also educated people who work for the growth and progress of the economy. Ironically the picture of education and literacy is just worst in the rural areas, about 50% of the rural women are illiterate and overall all literacy rates are very poor.
  5. Overgrowth and shortcomings of the Public sector: in the path of development for the last four decades it was asserted that the public sector is the engine of growth. As a result the public sector got flourished but it also began to manifest many shortcomings such as low capacity utilization, over capitalization, poor work ethics and inefficient decision making. Consequentially the Government decided for the disinvestment in the public sector for a large amount of capital expenditure was consumed over wages, salaries of government servants, interest payments; leaving  the government with least capital to be invested in social and physical infrastructure. Education, primary health and family welfare demand investment from the government but a huge amount of resources and capital is already blocked in various non-strategic sectors like consumer goods companies, hotels, trading companies, textile companies, pharmaceuticals and chemical companies, consultancy companies etc. Moreover a big amount of debt is over hang that required to be reduced.

CULTURAL ISSUES: the term culture stands for the various patterns of lifestyles, attitudes, and behaviors, code of conduct, customs, traditions, beliefs and practices which the people of a society tend to follow and implement. A culture is a unique commixture of various beliefs and practices that represents the people of the society in the form of an Identity. Culture also represents the materialistic aspect which means even the kind of commodities and materials people tend to use in a society that also represents the culture of that society. Every country possesses its own unique culture that depicts the way of the lifestyle, the attitudes and behavior of the people residing in it. Each culture has a significance attached to it. In the Indian context, Indian culture is versatile since it is an amalgamation of diversified trends, values, traditions, fashions, customs, languages, cuisines, religions, beliefs and practices. But despite of all this uniqueness Indian culture is now running into a struggle to survive in the era of globalization and modernization. Indian culture has undergone many changes and modification and have been facing many challenges which are as follows:

      1. Struggle with Western cultures: in the modern era the greatest challenges that the Indian culture has to face are from the process of westernization in India. People are now rapidly and drastically moving towards adopting the western culture and its practices. Indian people are more fascinated and moved by the culture of western countries that supposed to provide greater flexibility, freedom and liberty to them. Especially the young generation is highly influenced by the beliefs, languages, commodities, traditions and customs of western culture. For them Indian culture is rigid and reflects orthodox ideologies. The Indian people tend to forget the significance of the values of Indian culture and blindly praising the hollow values and practices of western culture.
      2. Communalism: India welcomes many religions and there is no restriction in Indian culture to follow any religion of choice. There are different religions persisting in India such as Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Parsees and others. Despite of the full freedom provided to the people by the nation, there are numerous of conflicts prevailing among different religious groups and communities. People of different religions tend to make their separate identities on the basis of their religions hence this intention sometimes gives and has given rise to many clashes, fights and even riots. Instead of creating a harmonious atmosphere where every religion can grow and progress, inferior and creepy mentalities of those religious groups spread hatred and separatism. There is a huge religious disparity existing in the present Indian society.
      3. Diminished Values: Indian culture has been widely recognized for the great moral and divine values it possesses. Indians are being brought up with values, they are taught about the values which enhance their lives and enable them to bear and face the struggle of life. But due to the advent of modernization and westernization the fundamental values of Indian culture are diminishing. That is a serious threat to it. If people would forget those values which have brought them together and enlightened them, then the survival of the mankind cannot predict a longer life. Family values, values like cooperation, harmony, patience, respect and regard, compassion are no longer or rarely been seen in the actions and thoughts of Indian people. Rather notions like status, prestige, class, dominance and so on are rising in the new framework of the Indian society which has a control over the attitudes and actions of the people.

HEALTH ISSUES: health is wealth and when we are talking about the progress and growth of a nation the health of its people plays a significant role. Health doesn’t only refer to the perfect physical care and hygienic conditions but rather it stands for a holistic approach that includes physical, mental, psychological and emotional health.  To be a progressive country, the people should be enthusiastic, physically sound and mentally stable. Therefore the ‘public health’ is one of the major areas that a country should deal with carefully. Public health includes the major areas of concern which have to be taken care of while dealing with the health issues of the people. Those areas of concern are; water facilities, sanitation, and hygiene, nutrition and medical facilities. Today public health has become one of the major issues of India. There are many flaws at various levels, facilities are not being provided well and also people aren’t able to avail them properly. India is now days facing gigantic health issues which are as follows :

      1. Malnutrition: only a nourished body and mind can create efficient thoughts and actions. A good diet plays a vital role for a human body since it makes the body holistically healthy. A scientific fact states that are the kind of food one intakes, the kind of thoughts one possess. However this thought has many aspects attached to it but in this context we are more concerned with the mandatory diet to keep the body and mind healthy and sound. An improper diet can lead to many imbalances in the mind and invites many unwanted diseases. When one is not able to intake the adequate amount of food regularly it would surely lead one to the condition if malnutrition. In India around 47% of the children are malnourished or underweight. Especially the pregnant women living in the rural areas are found to be severely malnourished due to which they have to face many life risking problems during pregnancy and while they labor. Children belonging to the minority groups Scheduled castes and scheduled tribe are more prone to malnourishment.
      2. Degraded condition of females and high infant mortality rate: poverty is a basic root cause of malnutrition in India. Due to poverty the poor and poorest groups of people are just unable to afford even a basic diet for themselves and here females are more prone to malnutrition and various diseases. They cannot afford the treatments and facilities and not even a good diet. A big number of females die every year due to the lack of proper treatments and nutrition.  There are many flaws in the resourcing chain of medical facilities and treatments in India. Numerous of rural areas remains untouched while the distribution of medical facilities by the government. Besides this there is also unawareness among the poor and rural people due to the infant mortality rate is also high in rural areas. Approximate 1.70 million infants/children die every year. They are not properly immunized, not given medical treatments and lack in nutritional diet as well.
      3. Drinking water: 85% of the rural population of India are dependent upon the ground water such as rivers and wells. Day by day these natural sources of water are getting dirty due to the frequent and constant release of waste and garbage of the factories and the general public. The level of ground water in villages is also reduced because of the unorganized use of water in irrigation and for other works in villages. Water supply is short in villages, rural areas and especially in the slums. Water is not safe in such areas particularly for drinking purposes. In urban areas also, water is not safe. Numerous of medicines are added to the water to make it safer for drinking purposes. The chemicals like Arsenic and Fluoride being added to the contaminated water to make it safe are giving threat to the public health and asserted to be dangerous when used in the long run.
      4. Medical Sector: the condition of the medical sector in India is not so appreciable. Medical facilities and treatments are not well provided and availed. The chain of distribution of is so much weaker and unorganized. The public is losing faith and interest in government hospitals but the poor class have no other choice except bearing the tortures of long waits for availing treatments. Those who are rich happily prefer to avail the facilities from the private medical sector. But getting treatment from private hospitals and clinics is also not a cheesy task. Their treatments are so much expensive and lengthy that a poor or middle class man cannot even dare to think of availing the medical faculties from them. Dishonesty and greed have trapped the working and labor class people for the sake of money. They steal and sell the medical instruments and other resources during the distribution of them. Hence, the treatments, facilities do not reach to the required places and spots. Rural areas rarely have access to free medical facilities which are supposed to be their right to avail.
      5. Sanitation:  the sanitation conditions in India are very poor. Around 70% of the households have no access to toilets and approximate 60% of the people including the rural population have a pathetic access to sanitation facilities and defecate in open. Poor sanitation and poor hygienic conditions give rise to many serious parasitic bacterial infections and pollute the atmosphere by spreading germs in the air.  Due to such terrible sanitation conditions people living in rural areas and slums suffer from many hazardous diseases like diarrhea, hepatitis and typhoid. Flies and mosquitoes get favourable conditions for their survival in such poor hygienic areas hence it again gives invitation to many diseases like malaria, dengue and typhoid. According to a survey thousands of children under the age of five, die every day due to the diseases caused by poor sanitation and bacterial infections.
      6. Infectious Diseases: as India lacks in medical facilities, sanitation and hygiene, medical aids, nutritional diets, safe water and awareness, it has surely given a big threat to the people for making a safe survival in the country. Numerous of diseases are spreading all over the country today. Hazardous diseases like tuberculosis, dengue fever, diarrhea, pneumonia, HIV-AIDS and malaria are causing so much of the risks to the lives of the people. However Polio was also one of the major diseases but in the recent years Indian Government has made sincere efforts to make India a Polio free country that has also been recorded in the 2012 survey report of Polio.

WOMEN ISSUES : however women make an essential part of the human life but here in the Indian context the survival of womanhood has not been less than a struggle. It was only during the Vedic ancient times that the women were worshipped as Goddess and had a prestigious status in the society but during the medieval period especially during the times of Mughal’s women were began to be treated as Daasi, devdasani and sexual servants who used to provide services to the kings and emperors. In the post independence era women continued to face many problems, exploitations and violence in the Indian society. The present picture of women in the contemporary India has not been changed in fact it has now become worse than earlier. Violence and exploitation have suppressed the value of the women in the Indian society. Following are the problems Indian women are facing in the present society :

      1. Domestic Violence: domestic violence is very common in Indian society. Since Indian society is male dominated and follows the patriarchal trend, it apparently gives the liberty to all the men to suppress their women and not let them raise their voice in any matter. The worst form of this suppression is domestic violence. Everyday numerous of women are being tortured, harassed and beaten under the walls of their homes and become the prey of the delirious and unjustified expressions of their men. Especially the illiterate men tend to be more violent towards their women at home. The rural areas and slums are the most commonly found places where the women are regularly harassed and tortured under the homes.
      2. Rape, sexual harassment and Molestation: everyday there is a crime taking place against women. They are raped, molested, sexually harassed and assaulted. There are states of India which show the highest numbers of crimes against women/girls such as Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Jammu Kashmir, and Mumbai. A survey asserted that most of the women and girl are assaulted, raped and harassed by their close male relatives and kin groups. Andhra Pradesh and Delhi are the prime states to figure out the highest statistics of crime against women. A total of 76, 924 of crime incidences against women have been recorded from 2008-2010 in Andhra Pradesh among which 3,807 were Rape cases, 14,511 were cases of Molestation and 11,633 were the cases of  sexual harassment. In Delhi, a total of 11, 102 incidents of crime against women have been recorded from 2008-2010 among which 1,214 were cases of Rape, 1,574 were cases of Molestation and 309 cases were recorded for Sexual harassment.
      3. Female Foeticide: female foeticide is one of the heinous and inhumane acts that are taking place in India without any limit. It is basically aborting a female fetus with a pre sex determination by scanning and ultrasound. Indian society favours a patriarchal system that supports the domination of males in the society hence the women have always been treated as inferior and less essential. Female foeticide is the result of that male dominated ideology being supported by other orthodox, traditional and customized beliefs and thoughts. Rajasthan, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh are the states of India which are leading at the top with the highest number of cases of female foeticide. A girl is supposed to be a burden for a family whose existence and survival in the family demands a lot of expenditures. Right from the birth to education and finally her marriage calls out for huge expenses hence, the couple and the family try to avoid the birth of girls with the help of a simple sex determination test and ultimately by aborting that female fetus.
      4.  Illegal Trafficking: illegal trafficking of young girls and young women is constantly increasing day by day in India. Due to various factors like poverty, unemployment, gender discrimination, rigid and orthodox customs women have been subjected to many inhumane and illegal crimes. Poor families and illiterate parents do not hesitate in selling their young girls to the pimps for the sake of a little amount of money. Their poverty makes them so helpless that they cannot even rationalize their acts. In poor families young girls move out at an early age in the search of work/job and most of the times get trapped in misguidance by fake people belong to brothels. Numerous of small girls are trafficked rapidly in the western countries to work as the sexual servants. Women are treated as merely objects and not human beings that is why they are being trafficked like objects here and there.
      5. Dowry Death: dowry is an ancient concept of the Indian society. Dowry was basically given at the time of marriage by the parents of the bride to the family of the groom. Dowry is kind of gifts and blessings of the parents of the bride. It may be in kind or assets. Initially giving dowry was totally a personal affair. But with the passage of time as the institution of marriage got modified in an expensive affair, the concept of dowry became rigid. Now the condition in the Indian society is that marriage has become the most expensive affair for the parents of the girl. A huge dowry must be given to the family of the groom that includes expensive gifts, money, property, trousseaus and home decors etc. A picture gets worse when these demands of the groom’s family are not being fulfilled or not up to their expectations. And there begins a vicious cycle of tortures, violence and harassment of the bride from her new family. Everyday so many cases are recorded against dowry demands. When the demands of the groom’s family not fulfilled they ultimately try to get rid of the girl by killing or burning her.

EDUCATIONAL ISSUES: education is one of the basic activities of people in all human societies. It is fundamentally a powerful tool that determines the destiny of human beings. It has immense prolific contributions to make towards society and a nation. Education in very simple terms means to ‘bring forth’ or to ‘bring up’ the hidden potential, calibre and talents of a person. Its role is not merely to impart knowledge to the pupil about some subjects but to develop in him/her those habits and attitudes with the help of which he may efficiently face the challenges of the his life. Education also helps a person to grow physically, mentally, socially, emotionally and spiritually. Education has a major role in the continuity of cultural tradition in the society. Education helps in continuing the existence of culture by transmitting it to younger generations. While talking about the education in India, it is much regretful to say that it has not been planned and organized properly hence being a system it possesses many flaws and weaknesses. Illiteracy has been a big menace for the progress of India. Following are the problems in the Indian Education system:

      1. Meagre Budgetary Allotment: the budgetary allotment for education for a huge nation like India is very less that is less 6%. And whatever amount of the budget has been employed that is either inadequate or unmanaged. An insufficient amount of funds is available for innovative educational programs and ideas. Present budget allocation rarely supports experimental prospects which demands innovation and advancements. There is a lack of money in the Indian education system that reflects monotony, stagnation, inadequate facilities and personnel.
      2. Influence of Foreign Education System: the present education system does not generate the kind of knowledge we require to adjust ourselves to the changed conditions of the society. Present curriculum basically prepares the Indian students or tries to mould their mindsets into a foreigner framework. It stresses upon the foreign curriculum that conveys the values like competition, personal-gains, aggressiveness, outsmarting, agitation and verbal ability but here the Indian students are being prepared to comprehend the foreigner knowledge not the knowledge that help them to understand the significance of the Indian systems and conditions. This foreign system obviously stresses upon English language that directly ruining the dignity of our mother tongue Hindi. Hindi language has become an alien concept for the children even at the primary education level. Such a system of education is not value based because it wholly focuses upon the individual material gains, it neglects the non-material aspects which are necessary for developing a healthy personality. The current education system has also failed to inculcate the spirit of ‘Nationalism’ among the young generation and the students.
      3. Inadequate Employment Potential: Indian education system faces a shortage of qualified Indians who can take the job of responsible educators. There are many alluring job opportunities, incentives and perks and moreover materialistic gains in other fields of work that very few people show some genuine interest in being employed as educators. Pursuing higher studies and then working as an educator demands a lot of patience, creativity and tolerance.
      4. Urban Biased Education System: our education system continues to be urban biased. It has failed to serve the need of the villages and the agricultural sector as well. Rather implementing a balanced approach in educating the people, it has only focussed upon increasing the number of urbanites, professionals and bureaucrats. How can the education system be so hopeless about the people of the villages that they cannot offer big personalities, administrators and leaders?

CORRUPTION : corruption as a phenomenon is both universal and historical. It is one of the social evils found in all the societies of the world. Unfortunately, India is regarded as one the countries where corruption has become very much widespread during the recent years. The dictionary defines corruption as “an inducement to wrong by bribery or other unlawful means, a departure from what is pure and correct”. Corruption has become deep-rooted in India and its growth is unhindered and unchecked. Corruption involves the abuse of power associated with a public or public life. It involves the practice of receiving bribe not only for getting wrong things done but also getting the right things done at the right time. It has percolated through almost all the fields of our social life. No part of our public life is spared from it. A large number of public servants are guilty of either practicing or supporting corruption. It is one of the factors that have contributed to the degradation of the Indian Politics. Tall claims made by political leaders to fight out corruption have proved to be shallow.  Corruption is so much widely spread that businessmen, contractors, bureaucrats, industrialists, journalists, entrepreneurs, teachers, doctors and moreover politicians all come under suspicion. Following are the causes that lead to the increase in India :

      1. Economic Insecurity: this is regarded as the most important cause of corruption. The poorer people become corrupt in the hope of becoming rich and the rich get involved in it for their fear of losing what they already have. Rich people have cravings for luxurious goods and expensive commodities which encourage them to become corrupt.
      2. High Rate of Income Tax: since the tax rates are comparatively high in India even the honest people are often tempted to escape from it by making false returns of their property and income. Many of the officers in the income tax department are also equally corrupt and they thrive on bribery.
      3. Less Salary to Government Servants: employees in some of the government departments are paid comparatively very less salary. This condition is said to be the cause of corruption in the administration. Clerks in the court, peons and attenders in all the government departments, police constables and other employees draw a poor salary. They expect for the tips and bribes even for doing their regular routine duties.
      4. Presence of Black Money and System of Democracy: existence of large amounts of unaccounted black money is one of the main sources of corruption. The sources of such money are tax evasions, speculations in share and stocks, smuggling. All the political parties especially the ruling party spends cores of rupees on each election. This money comes from the big businessmen, industrialists and such other rich men who have their own vested interests in financing the elections. They supply money to the party elections in the form of black money that in turn, gives them license a moral justification for accumulating unaccounted money in different ways.
      5. Modernization: in the industrial society modernization breeds corruption and offers prizes for doing evil, money, position and power. New loyalties and new identifications emerge among individuals and groups. This contributes to an increase in the incidence of corruption. The ‘get rich’ philosophy motivates a large number of people both at the top and bottom of the society to become corrupt.

ENVIORNMENTAL ISSUES: environmental pollution has become one of the biggest problems for India. The developed countries are engaged in abusing the limited natural resources while the developing countries are tapping the resources for their existence and to achieve some developments. In all the cases however natural environment is the target of attack. Our eco-system is rapidly threatened by commercial exploitation, growing population demands and industrial pollution. Rivers and oceans, forests and plain lands, grasslands and wetlands are fighting for their survival. Pollution is causing a great danger to human existence. Modern ecologists in India have pointed out some important factors of environmental pollution such as—human population explosion, rapid industrialization, deforestation, unplanned urbanization, scientific and technological advancement, etc. Air pollution is the greatest threat to our health in the coming future. The five big cities—Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai and Bangalore, spew daily into the air we breathe more than one crore kilogram of smoke. Badarpur and Indraprastha Thermal Electric Plants (Delhi) produce on an average per day 180 tons of fly-ash and 70 tons of Sulphur dioxides. Government –owned Oil Refinery, 4 kms away from Taj Mahal, spew out 24 tonnes of sulphur dioxide daily.  Air pollution is affecting the health of Indians adversely. It is causing diseases like heart diseases, lung diseases, high blood pressure, nervous debility, eye sore, throat irritation, chronic bronchitis, respiratory allergies etc. It is affecting the weather adversely, raising the temperature, reducing the humidity and adversely affecting the rainfall.

Today, industry contributes more to water pollution than do household users. The nation’s rivers and lakes have long been the dumping ground for many industries. Rivers such as Ganga, Yamuna and Cauvery, Dal and Nagin (Srinagar) and many others are becoming dumping grounds for poisonous chemicals, factories, agricultural waste, insecticides and even acids. Hoogly River, flowing though Kolkata is polluted because 350 factories are spread over on both the banks of this river within a distance of 100 kms. Water pollution immensely affects the growth of plants and trees and also the animal life. Many cases are recorded where people are found complaining about the consequences of polluted water over their health. Polluted water can cause damage to the nervous system and can cripple people especially the children.

Man is living in an increasing noisy atmosphere today. The previous 20th century has been described as the Century of Noise. Here in India due to the over urbanization and industrialization and technology advancement there has been a rapid increase in industries, factories, automobiles, and air-crafts gadgets etc. which cause a tremendous noise in the atmosphere. Noise levels are particularly acute near railway junctions, traffic round bouts, bus terminals and airports. Under the influence of modernization and westernization use of gadgets, television, radio, mobiles has been increased. Noise pollution or environmental noise is one the new killers of our Indian society. Noise pollution is damaging man’s hearing ability, and causing loss of mental peace of the people those results in emotional upsets.

In India from Kashmir to Kanyakumari tonnes of garbage are produced every day, including paper, yard, wastes, glass, metals, food, plastic and wood. This garbage is termed as solid wastes includes—food waste, rubbish things consisting of metal, plastic and glass, demolition products such as bricks, masonry and pipes, sewage treatment residues, dead animals, manure and other discarded material. Here in India, there are more than 100 million families. They account for as much as 50 million buckets of solid waste every day. In a year, nearly 20,000 million buckets of these wastes find their way to garbage yards. In the absence of proper arrangement for the disposal of solid wastes, each family is adding to land pollution in one way or another. Industrial wastes, agricultural wastes, radioactive wastes, domestic waste, street and market refuse are polluting not only the soil but also air and water. Due to the excessive use of chemical and fertilizers our land is losing its natural capacity to support growth of plants and trees. Land is also becoming the breeding ground of disease-bearing bacteria.

AGRICULTURAL ISSUES : India has been a global agrarian country. It is the world’s second largest country that produces rice, cotton, wheat, sugarcane, vegetables and fruits. India is the largest producer of milk, pulses and spices. Almost about 40% of our national income is obtained through agriculture and more than 66.5% of the people still depend on agriculture. However the share of agriculture in the Indian economy has been declined to less than 15% due to the increased growth rates of service and industrial sector but this sector continues to play an important role in India’s economy. Currently, there is a need to create a productive and sustainable agricultural sector because of certain reasons; about three-quarters of Indian families are dependent upon rural incomes, about 70% of the Indian poor families are found in rural areas and lastly because India’s food security is solely dependent upon the production of cereal crops, fruits, vegetables to meet the demand of the growing population. Following are the current issues that the Indian agricultural sector is facing:

      1. The increased population pressure has created a great demand for land. 2001 Census has figured out that this demand for land is going to increase in the future since the overall density of population is 324 persons per sq.km. Every bit of land has been used even the hill slopes.
      2. Meagre irrigation facilities have made the farming quite a tough job. This leads the farmers to divide the crops into two halves out of which one is irrigated and the other half is left at the mercy of monsoon rain water for irrigation purpose.
      3. The agricultural sector is facing the problem of depletion of soil fertility. Due to the lack of scientific knowledge, technology advancement and lack of resources, and deforestation farmers are unable to sustain the natural fertility of the soil.
      4. The incapability of the Indian traditional farmers to purchase modern and advanced equipments and tools for farming. There is a lack of money and awareness among the traditional farmers.
      5. Agrarian classes face the problem of land holdings. Only big farmers who hold more than four hectares of land can predict a sound economical returns otherwise the medium, small farmers and the agricultural labours face the scarcity of land holdings that leads to social tension, violence and conflicts.
      6. Wastage of food grains due to the lack of proper storage facility is another problem of the agricultural sector. Approx. 10% of the food grains go waste every year due to the inefficient storage facilities and improper management.

TERROISM & NAXALISM: terrorism is a social stigma of Indian society and it is not something just arisen in fact terrorism has its roots deeply rooted in the different societies of the world for long ancient times. It is just the matter of time that now it has caught a rapid speed in deteroiting the world’s peace and harmony. Terrorism is not only subjected to the United States but it is taking place all over the world in different forms and shapes. India is facing extreme adverse outcomes of the acts of terrorism. India has lost many innocent lives in the past recent years that unwillingly and unknowingly became the prey of the inhumane acts of the terrorist. Terrorist use bombing, hijacking, kidnapping and murder in order to pursue their political agenda. There many few major reasons for why this terrorism is existing in the society today. Terrorist are not some aliens from some other planets but they are only a few of the common people who are misguided in the name of religion and to fulfil some profitable demands. Through the terrorist attacks the terrorists try to influence or change the government of the nation. Showing the dissatisfaction and refusal towards the political agendas’ also invoke the terrorist to commit attacks. And sometimes it is the religious reforms that the terrorists coercively want the government and the society, to follow. There are a number of terrorist attacks have taken place in India which have caused immense destruction and great loss to Indian economy and social life. May it be Jaipur serial bomb blasts May 13, 2008, Assam bombing on October 30 2008, Mumbai bombing November 26, 2008, Hyderabad bomb blast 21 February, 2013 or our own Parliament Attack, a terrorist attack always causes huge threat to the social lives of the people, it is always a direct attack on the security system in the nation and moreover the most important element is the lives of the innocent people who die in those attacks.

For the past many years Naxalism has been very active in India. Naxalites have spread their horizon to 15 states and 170 districts which covers the areas of Tarai regions in Nepal to Tirupati in Andhra Pradesh also West Champaran in West Bihar to Vidarbha in Maharashtra. The most dominant Naxalite force in India is P.W.G formed by Kondapalli Settaramaiah on April 22, 1980. This Naxalite group has destroyed property worth crore, and it has also been suspected to have links with Nepal Maoists and LTTE. There are many reasons for a rapid increase in Naxalite activities in the country such as – mismanagement of the forests. In the last 38 years Naxal groups have got control over 19% of the forests that is two and a half size of Bangladesh. There is a growth in inter and intra regional disparities. Naxalites have created a strong social base for themselves by attracting the people who have vulnerable livelihood, farmers, labourers, fishermen and bamboo cutters. Due to the government failure to ensure food security to the tribal people then their alienation and also displacement by many projects are also major reasons for the spread of Naxalism. There is a constant problem of poverty and unemployment in the regions and government has failed to look after these problems. On the basis of caste system naxalities organized the marginal and landless farmers to take on the rich landlords. Naxalism is the biggest threat for the future of our country. The Naxalites highlight the social, political and economic weaknesses of India that make it more vulnerable to the threats from outside.

      • GOVERNANCE ISSUES: governance means the implementation of those processes by which the rulers are selected; decisions are made and finally applied. It includes the processes by which the administration of the country runs. However governance is to be defined as a state centric system but in the recent years its description has become broader that includes non state actors like public institutions , market forces, civil society, and international donor agencies which play significant role in the decision making and implementation of the processes. United Nations Development Program defines governance as “the exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage the country’s affair at all levels. It comprises mechanism, processes and institutions, through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate their differences”. While talking about the concept of governance in the Indian context; it surely needs to be improved. It refers to the positive responsiveness of the state institutions and the quality of governmental functioning for an effective deliverance of public services with having least discrimination, respect for human right and with tremendous integrity. Along with the concept of governance UNDP has also defined the concept of Good Governance which is—“among other things, participatory, transparent and accountable. It is also effective and equitable. And it promotes the rule of law. God governance ensures that political, social and economic priorities are based on broad consensus in society and that the voice of the poorest and the most vulnerable are heard in decision making over the allocation of development resources”. In Indian context good governance faces following problems :
      1. Accountability: in the matter of governance accountability means that whosoever is working in the administration is held responsible for the work delegated and is also being responsible for any flaw or lapse in the work done. Our administrative machinery involves lengthy and elaborated procedures and many people involved in the processes that makes it difficult to check and fix the accountability of each of the person.
      2. The rule of Law: however governance demands rules of law to be implemented both in actual picture the actions in Indian governance are not done according to the rule of law. The law enforcement agencies show so much of inefficiency, the nature of law is unrealistic and the attitude of the general public is so casual towards the law that works according to their conveniences and requirements.
      3. Corruption: corruption has become a big deterrent to the good governance of India. Prevention of Corruption Act, CBI and departmental vigilance section has been dealing with the corruption cases to prevent it but the result is just negligible. Because corruption has been now accepted by the society and its people.

Every problem has a solution and requires to be solved. National issues whatever and how many they are they seriously need to be solved out and best steps should be taken in the path of rectifying their status and eradicating the unwanted elements of the system. Now we are heading towards the suggestions on the above mentioned issues in order to create a new picture of a healthy and progressed nation. National issues can never be resolved with one man’s effort; rather it demands a collective effort and collective consciousness. Not only the law governing agencies and administration but it requires the society and its people to participate in the task of transformation.

 Following are a few suggestions for the above mentioned issues:

      • The biggest role of social institutions: family and marriage are the two very important social institutions which controls the functioning of the society. In order to control the issues of society these two institutions can play major roles. The family can influence the upbringing of an individual who is also a member of the society. Family is a giver of values, ideologies and ethos to a person and if these values are high and sophisticated the actions would automatically become wise and intelligent. Marriage is a sacred connection between two people. Marriage system should be understood in a sacred way and not just as an occasion of taking dowry and transaction of a girl. If these two institutions lay down a firm foundation of right knowledge and thoughts then the person would definitely develop as a civilized and mature member of the society.
      • Society should welcome contemporary values and ethos: contemporary values and ethos loosen the rigid strings of orthodox and customized ideologies and actions hence a society should always be welcoming for such new and widened ideologies that help a person to think in a broader way and make his mentality more enlightened. Such advanced and values help the person to rise above the menial discriminations based upon caste and customs.
      • Importance of Education for Society: the day society will understand fully the importance of education in its growth, that day its actual progress would begin to take place. Without education society is just ineffective and unprofitable. Education ‘creates’ a personality, it provides knowledge, skills and above all great ideologies. So much of social problems will definitely come to end when its members are educated. Because only educated people can lead, resonate and act wisely. Hence society should be enthusiastic towards creating a favourable atmosphere for education to flourish. Social efforts should be made to motivate everyone around to become educated.
      • Increase in Employment Opportunities: only increased employment in India can solve many economic problems. Employment is the basis of livelihood and if it is not there then obviously one would get diverted towards other mediums or options to get money for his survival and most of the times the other options are always the wrong ones. One may indulge in inhumane and unlawful activities. Hence the government should increase the number of employment in the country in fact government should make it a firm agenda of eradicating unemployment from the country within a particular time.
      • Special privileges and facilities for poorest and poor classes/groups: unequal distribution of income, facilities and privileges from the government has always been a major reason of unrest among the poorer classes. And that is also why the disparity between rich and poor is widening day by day. Therefore the government should take special care and concerns while the distribution of income and facilities. It should be noted that the poorer classes are able to take advantage of the facilities from the government. A major amount of money has been employed in so many unproductive measures then government at least can make some productive efforts by giving special privileges to the poor people like free housings, free occupation set ups, then their miser ability would certainly reduce.
      • Improvement in governmental services: although now private sector has over powered almost every area of services whether it is medical, tourism, recreational, education etc. but public sector would always be feasible for every person may belong to any class or caste. With the entry of the private sector (industrialists, professionals and entrepreneurs) the competition between the public and private sector has become vast but as a result it has only decreased the quality of the services of the public sector. Today no one wants to avail government services like hospitals, travelling, schooling and so on. But here only the improvements need to be done. Because there is still a major portion of the middle class and poor section of the society that relies upon the government services. For these sections at least the public services should be made better and feasible and moreover easily approachable. Women should be provided with facilities like free maternal check up, family planning consultations, free medical aids, medicines and treatment.
      • Raising National Spirit through Collective Conscience: to have the national spirit among the people of the country is the symbol of Unitedness and collectiveness. Each member of the society should have the feelings of pride and love for their country and this spirit can only be put into an individual right from the childhood. Every individual member of the country should be raised with feelings of belonging to one country, one nation and above all with the respect for the motherland.  The leaders, families, parents, educators and thinkers can play the leading role in this task. Their actions and each thought should reflect and convey the feeling of Nationalism social and nationalist organizations which work to promote national values should play a super active role in this task. They become the medium in creating national spirit among the people. If these all groups or individuals understand their roles and implement it well then it is not difficult to create a social solidarity in the country.
      • Respect for Indian culture: it is unjust to demean own culture and blinding following a foreign culture. That is what happening in India at the present time. The young generation is becoming delirious about the western culture and values and at the same time the older generation is becoming too much flexible to adopt the same western culture for the sake of their children. It is the duty of the society and active members of the country to spread the message of respect for our own culture. Through the medium of education in schools and during parenting children must be given the vast knowledge about their Indian values, traditions, ideologies and patterns.
      • Special attention on the infrastructure of rural areas: rural areas need the special attention from the Indian government and administration. With poor infrastructure in rural areas are lacking in maintaining even the minimum standards of living.  Rural areas need better houses, schools, hospitals, roads and markets. Better and developed infrastructure increases the chances of sustainable growth.
      • Advancement in the Villages: villages are the heart of India. India has been the land of villages, around 3/4 of the Indian population live in villages. Sociological Researchers admit that if one wants to study the Indian society deeply then he should study the Indian villages thoroughly. But today the Indian government is only focussing upon increasing urbanization in the country. Villages deliberately need to be developed in all the spheres. Infrastructure, agricultural advancement, education/literacy, medical facilities, women’s status, hierarchy system, sanitation facilities needs to be taken care of seriously. Most of the epidemic diseases, health problems, and social conflicts have their origin in villages.
      • Aaganwadi system should be brought back : Aaganwadi was a great concept in the old Indian society however there are many rural areas which still have Aaganwadi but the condition of these shelters are not good at all. The administration should now concentrate on increasing the number of such Aaganwadi. Aaganwadi system has been one of the best system for the women of villages and rural areas because these Aaganwadi provide them many facilities like Mid day meals for the children, free medical aids to children and women, awareness creating programs, consultation for family planning and moral support for the mothers.
      • Literacy for each Women and increase in Social and Political Participation: literacy rate of women in India is poor especially the rural women are just unaware of the importance of education in their lives. The government should make this as one of its top agendas that not a single woman stays illiterate. The government doesn’t realize the power of education for women. Women can lead the whole country on the basis of literacy. The social and political participation must be increased. Women are not only confided to Resonation of new life and bring up children. But they can be successful leaders, entrepreneurs and activists. At the society level women at least have many roles to play but on the political front they have not been so much encouraged and provided opportunities. Their active participation in politics and the judiciary has only been in the papers. It is the duty of the already established and active women of the society to become an example for others and also to motivate them to join politics, judiciary and armed forces as well.
      • Strict Law Enforcement for the crimes against women: until unless there is strict law enforcement on the criminals who commit crimes against women, crimes cannot come to an end. Women are getting raped, harassed, burnt for dowry, and assaulted every day, just because they people who commit such crimes are not being punished strictly. Had they been punished and penalized heavily by the Law of the country, they could not dare to continue the crime. It is the high time for the Law of the country to awake and crush the criminals under the pressure of its strictness and conduct.
      • Upliftment to Indian Education System: Indian education system has almost become foreigners now. Schools, colleges and educational institutions stress and focus only on delivering western way of education. It is surprising to see that Hindi language has just been vanished from the primary education in school. The school does not pay any attention towards teaching Hindi and it is only added at a very later level of education. The regulating bodies of education should concentrate upon developing such an education system that foremost respects the mother language; redefine the curriculum of education at the primary level that teaches everything about the Indian culture, India and its uniqueness. There should be the addition of innovative curriculum in education that helps the children to grow up in versatile personalities. Special attention should be given upon the grooming and training of teachers and educators. Education is for all and not only for the urban cities should therefore education be spread out to all the areas, place and corners of the country.
      • Strict actions against corruption and the corrupted: corruption is spreading like a plague in the country. And the best remedy for the eradication of this problem lies in the strict responses and action from the Law of the country. If people involved in the administration and government services have forgotten the ethics then only strict law and punishment only can teach them a great lesson. Somewhere someone has to break this vicious chain of corruption. In fact society and its people are equally responsible for the continuation and eradication of corruption. Both the one who is corrupted and the one who encourages corruption should be strictly punished and penalized.
      • Realizing the Power of Your Vote: a vote is a voice of an individual and it is the only way through which one can choose the person whom he wants to see active in the government and to become the representative of the country.  It is much in the hands of the people of the country to choose the right candidate who can stand for them and can give a reality to their dreams. Excluding the individuals who are illiterate, do not understand the value of their votes and who think a vote is a saleable commodity; at least the educated people can step forward in changing the system. They should show their total disagreement in allowing the candidates who have a criminal background. Are we here to choose the leaders or the best criminal for the country who support more crimes and disharmony? With the power of the vote people can cease the faulty chain of election that pushes the undeserving candidates.
      • Agricultural Development: agriculture is the major source of livelihood of around 66.5% people of India. Therefore it deserves a kind attention and concern of the government for its development and advancement. First of all farmers and agriculturalists should be given the proper knowledge about enhancing the quality of their farming. Few awareness and training programs should be organized in the villages that are solely dependent upon agriculture. Farmers should be given knowledge and training about the new and advanced ways of farming, tool, fertilizers and advanced ways of irrigation. Farmers should be provided easy loan and in a short span of time. Water resources should be made better for the farmers so that they do not need to be dependent upon the monsoons for irrigation purposes. Farmers should be given help and assistance in marketing of their production in the urban cities. There should be an increase in the number of storage houses so that hard work (produced food grains) of the farmer does not go waste.
      • Civic Sense should be improved: environmental degradation is the result of the carelessness and ill-treatment of the environment by the human beings. People have almost forgotten the civic senses about how to keep the environment clean and safe for their own selves. For own benefits, human beings are cutting forests, increasing factories and industries, spreading dirt and crap everywhere in the atmosphere. And when face the result of those actions then they get tensed and irritated. Being a civilized member of the country every one of us should follow civic manners and try to maintain the cleanliness not only under our homes but in outside atmosphere as well. Plantation should increased as much as possible. In fact we all should do plantation nearby our workplaces, homes and gardens. We all should remember whatever crap we are throwing out on roads and in the atmosphere it’s after effects would certainly chase us. Municipal corporations should also be sensitive towards the sanitation facilities. Public toilets should increase in numbers and should also be approachable. There should be penalties for the people who litter craps and garbage on roads. Especially, the ones should be penalized who spit on roadsides and urinate in open. It’s not confirmed in any of the books of ethics that men are free to urinate on roadsides or in open. Maintaining the cleanliness and hygiene of the country is our own responsibility. People should behave in a civilized manner, believe that this whole country is their home and it is their responsibility to make this home beautiful and clean. There should also be strictness in the procedure of giving licenses to the factories and industries. Factors should be considered seriously such as, pollution check, should not be nearby residential area, and should not increase noise pollution and good provisions of dumping the wastage of the factories.
      • Spiritual Enlightenment in Society: people may misguide and mislead on the basis of Religion but not on the basis of Spirituality. And that is what is required in the present scenario. People need to be spiritually enlightened, they should be aware of divinity and their purpose of lives. Spirituality would help them immensely to be empathetic with the purpose of religion. People who are provoked, misguided in the name of religion deliberately need to be awakened. No Religion teaches to hate, to terrorize, to kill or to suppress rather it gives a conduct and discipline to life. It is the duty of the spiritual thinkers and even the religious preachers to spread the words of love and divinity all around the world. Once the positive would reach the highest the negative would automatically lower down. Communalism, terrorism is just the instances of a wrong understanding of Religion and Freedom. True Freedom is not in killing and terrorizing, it is rather in giving love and creating harmony and peace in the world.
      • India should work to organize its political structure : It is just impossible for India to solve the problem of separatist movements because granting statehood to those regions who seek for it stand up with their own sets of problems and if India begin to grant independence to every region that asks for it then the country would soon fall apart. Therefore the best way for India to face such issues is to organize its political structure so that the individual religious and ethnic groups attain increased representation in the government. Efforts should be made in order to ensure to the significant minorities groups that they have a voice in the state and national government for example; creating more reserved seats for ethnic minorities.
      • Good Governance: all the above suggestion can only be materialized when there is a well organized, well planned, systematic and transparent governance/ of the processes and procedures of the administration. Transparency at the action level is a must. Administration desperately requires honest officers and bureaucrats. May it be any sector or field good governance is always essential.

National issues need to be resolved with the collective efforts of the society, the citizens, law enforcement agencies, social institution and finally with a Good Governance. India is a great country that has survived long despite of various conflicts and outbreaks. No country is perfect we need to work out for the perfection and growth. India has a bright future and being the Indians we need to brighten up our visions and perceptions towards our nation.

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